( Learn korean ) informations about korea

8 Feb

 

Location

Korea lies in the northeastern part of the Asian continent. It is located between 33 degrees and 43 degrees in Northern Latitude, and 124 degrees and 132 degrees in Eastern Longitude. China, Russia and Japan are adjacent to Korea. Local time is nine hours ahead of GMT.

 

Climate

Korea’s climate is regarded as a continental climate from a temperate standpoint and a monsoon climate from a precipitation standpoint. The climate of Korea is characterized by four distinct seasons: spring, summer, fall, and winter.

  • Spring of Korea
    Spring lasts from late March to May and is warm. Various flowers, including the picturesque cherry blossom, cover the nation’s mountains and fields during this time.
     

  • Summer of Korea
    Summer lasts from June to early September. It is a hot and humid time of the year.
     

  • Autumn of Korea
    Autumn lasts from September to November, and produces mild weather. It is the best season for visiting Korea.
     

  • Winter of Korea
    Winter lasts from December to mid-March. It can be bitterly cold during this time due to the influx of cold Siberian air. Heavy snow in the northern and eastern parts of Korea makes favorable skiing conditions.

 

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    Language

    The Korea Language: Hangeul
    Hangeul was invented in 1443, during the reign of King Sejong. It is composed of 10 vowels and 14 consonants. Hangeul has 11 compound vowels, 5 glottal sounds. The chart below represents the 24 Hangeul letters and their romanized equivalents. ‘The Hunminjeongeum,’ a historical document which provides instructions to educate people using Hangeul, is registered with UNESCO.
    UNESCO awards a ‘King Sejong Literacy Prize,’ every year in memory of the inventor of Hangeul.


    Hangeul written in syllabic units made up of two, three, or four letters

     

    History

    The Prehistoric Age
    Archaeological findings have indicated that the first settlements on the Korean Peninsula occurred 700,000 years agoGo-Joseon (2333 – 108 B.C)
    According to legend, the mythical figure Dan-gun founded Go-Joseon, the first Korean Kingdom, in 2333 B.C. Subsequently, several tribes moved from the southern part of Manchuria to the Korean Peninsula.

    The Three Kingdoms Period (57 B.C. – A.D. 676)
    The three kingdoms, Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, were established in the 1st century A.D. During this period, the kingdom’s political systems, religions (Buddhism and Confucianism), and cultures developed.

    The Unified Silla Kingdom (676 – 935)
    The Unified Silla Kingdom promoted the development of culture and arts, and the popularity of Buddhism reached its peak during this period. The Unified Silla Kingdom declined because of contention for supremacy among the noble classes, and was annexed by Goryeo in 935.

    The Goryeo Dynasty (918 – 1392)
    The Goryeo Dynasty was established in 918. Buddhism became the state religion during this time and greatly influenced politics and culture. Famous items produced during this time include Goryeo celadon and the Tripitaka Koreana. During the Goryeo Dynasty, Jikji, the world’s oldest movable metal type was published. It was invented 78 years before the German movable metal type created by Gutenburg. The Goryeo Dynasty’s strength decreased gradually in the latter half of the 14th century.

    The Joseon Dynasty (1392 – 1910)
    The Joseon Dynasty was formed at the end of the 14th century. Confucianism became the state ideology and exerted a massive influence over the whole of society. The Joseon Dynasty produced Hangeul, the Korean alphabet, which was invented in 1443, during the reign of King Sejong. The dynasty’s power declined sharply later because of foreign invasions, beginning with the Japanese invasion of 1592.

    The Japanese Colonial Period (1910 – 1945)
    In 1876, the Joseon Dynasty was forced to adopt an open-door policy regarding Japan. The Japanese annexation of Korea concluded in 1910, and Korean people had to accept Japanese colonial rule until the surrender of Japan, which ended World War II.

    The Republic of Korea (1945 – Present)
    In 1945, Japan surrendered to the Allies and withdrew from the Korean Peninsula. The Korean Peninsula was then divided into two zones, South and North Korea. The Korean War broke out on June 25, 1950 and fighting ended when an armistice was signed on July 27, 1953. In 2000, an historic summit took place between South and North Korea in Pyeongyang, the capital of North Korea.

     

     

    Tradition Art

    Traditional Dance
    Korea’s traditional dance, like its music, can be classified into either court dances or folk dances. The slow, gracious movements of the court dances reflect the beauty of moderation and the subdued emotions formed as a result of the strong influence of Confucian philosophy. In contrast, the folk dances, mirroring the life, work and religion of common people, are exciting and romantic, and aptly portray the free and spontaneous emotions of the Korean people. Court dances are called ‘jeongjae,’ and include hwagwanmu (a flower crown dance), geommu (a sword dance), cheoyongmu, mugo, suyeonjang and gainjeonmokdan. Folk dances include talchum (a mask dance), seungmu (a monk dance) and salpuri.

    Traditional Music
    Traditional music can be divided into two types: jeongak, or the music of the royal family and the upper classes, and minsogak, or folk music. Jeongak has a slow, solemn and complicated melody, while minsogak is fast and vigorous. Jeongak is divided into two types: yeomillak and sujecheon. Minsogak is also divided into two types: seongak (vocal music), which includes pansori, minyo and gagok , and giak (instrumental music), which includes the sanjo and samullori styles. The first noteworthy characteristic of Korean court music is its leisurely tempo. As a result, the mood of this music is meditative and reposeful.

    Traditional Paintings
    From the murals of ancient tombs to the paintings of the Joseon Dynasty (1392 ~ 1910), there are a number of indigenous Korean styles. Korean artists have an inclination toward naturalism, in which subjects such as landscapes, flowers or birds are rendered in ink and colored pigments on mulberry paper or silk. In the middle Joseon Dynasty, noble artists established new style in Korean painting. Folk Paintings, which described the joys and sorrows of people’s lives, became popular.

    source:- http://www.asia-planet.net/korea/information.htm

     

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